The 5-year survival rate for black people with melanoma is 59% compared to 85% for white people. “While people of color are less likely to become afflicted with skin cancer, they are much more likely to die from it due to a delay in detection,” says Perry Robins, MD, president of the Skin Cancer Foundation (US). “Therefore, we need to make these populations aware of the importance of early detection, prompt treatment, and effective prevention.”
“We often use ethnicity as a proxy for skin color, which is a mistake,” says Mona A. Gohara, MD, educational spokesperson for the Skin Cancer Foundation. “Within each ethnic group there is a range of skin tones, all of which are at risk for skin cancer.”
The most common forms of skin cancer are basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and melanoma. Each of these has been linked to intermittent or chronic sun exposure.
Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer in white, Hispanic, Chinese, and Japanese people, and the second most common skin malignancy in black and Indian people.
Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common skin malignancy among black and Indian people, and the second most common skin cancer among Hispanic, Chinese, and Japanese people.
Melanoma is the third most common type of skin cancer among all racial groups. Although UV light, along with heredity, plays a role in the causation of melanoma in white people, the primary risk factor for melanoma in people of color is undetermined.
Among people of African descent, Asians, and Native people, melanomas are most likely to appear in the mouth or in the form of acral lentiginous melanoma—melanomas on the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, and under the nails.
Reported risk factors for melanoma in minority populations include albinism, burn scars, radiation therapy, trauma, immunosuppression, and pre-existing moles (especially on the palms/soles and mouth). Due to delayed diagnoses, melanoma is frequently fatal for people of Asian, Latin, and African descent.
Above is the information needed to cite this article in your paper or presentation. The International Committee
of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommends the following citation style, which is the now nearly universally
accepted citation style for scientific papers:
Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:284-7.
About the ICMJE and citation styles
The ICMJE is small group of editors of general medical journals who first met informally in Vancouver, British Columbia, in 1978 to establish guidelines for the format of manuscripts submitted to their journals. The group became known as the Vancouver Group. Its requirements for manuscripts, including formats for bibliographic references developed by the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM), were first published in 1979. The Vancouver Group expanded and evolved into the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), which meets annually. The ICMJE created the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals to help authors and editors create and distribute accurate, clear, easily accessible reports of biomedical studies.
An alternate version of ICMJE style is to additionally list the month an issue number, but since most journals use continuous pagination, the shorter form provides sufficient information to locate the reference. The NLM now lists all authors.
BCMJ standard citation style is a slight modification of the ICMJE/NLM style, as follows:
- Only the first three authors are listed, followed by "et al."
- There is no period after the journal name.
- Page numbers are not abbreviated.
For more information on the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, visit www.icmje.org