International researchers, including University of British Columbia electrical and computer engineering professor John Madden and PhD candidate Seyed Mohammad Mirvakili, are using fibres from fishing line and sewing thread to create inexpensive artificial muscles that could be used in medical devices, humanoid robots, and prosthetic limbs, or woven into fabrics. In a study published in Science, researchers describe how they created inexpensive artificial muscles that generate more force and power than human or animal muscles of the same size. Fibres were twisted into tight coils to create an artificial muscle that could contract and relax in response to changes in temperature, which can be controlled by an electrical heating element. The system has been demonstrated by using such muscles to manipulate surgical forceps, as shown in a video available on www.bcmj.org. The artificial muscles may also find
use in robots and low-cost devices that help those with impaired mobility.
Video of the artificial muscle manipulating surgical forceps.
Above is the information needed to cite this article in your paper or presentation. The International Committee
of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommends the following citation style, which is the now nearly universally
accepted citation style for scientific papers:
Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:284-7.
About the ICMJE and citation styles
The ICMJE is small group of editors of general medical journals who first met informally in Vancouver, British Columbia, in 1978 to establish guidelines for the format of manuscripts submitted to their journals. The group became known as the Vancouver Group. Its requirements for manuscripts, including formats for bibliographic references developed by the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM), were first published in 1979. The Vancouver Group expanded and evolved into the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), which meets annually. The ICMJE created the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals to help authors and editors create and distribute accurate, clear, easily accessible reports of biomedical studies.
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For more information on the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, visit www.icmje.org